Posts Tagged ‘biogeography’

Recently our paper on the The phylogenetic position of Lepidopygopsis typus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a monotypic freshwater fish endemic to the Western Ghats of India has been published. This is an important work and a significant contribution to the Ichthyology of the Indian Peninsula, since it clears a longstanding misconception.

First of all, let me say that the species Lepidopygopsis typus a monotypic freshwater fish endemic to the Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) forests, is a relative of the Mahseers, and allied large barbs distributed in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Nepal and several North African regions.

It was until now confused to be a species within the “schizothoracinae”, which comprise the hill trouts or the mountain barbells of the Himalayas. The “disjunct distribution” has baffled ichthyologists and biogeographers at the same time.


Now we show that it is just a case of a “false disjunct” which arose due to improper systematic position of the species.

Here, using phylogenetic hypothesis testing, and using both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies we solve the puzzle. All are welcome to read the paper and comment on it. If the readers need a full text of the paper please feel free to mail me or one of my co-authors who will happily share it with you for non-profit/research purposes.



NEELESH DAHANUKAR, SIBY PHILIP, K. KRISHNAKUMAR, ANVAR ALI & RAJEEV RAGHAVAN, 2013. The phylogenetic position of Lepidopygopsis typus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a monotypic freshwater fish endemic to the Western Ghats of India, Zootaxa 3700 (1): 113–139.

As the title suggest, a new species of teleost has been found out, it was collected, “sort of” unearthed, from the sand bed of a small river in south western India, thus named “ammophila” which means “sand loving”.

The new eel-loach Pangio ammophila

This species is for now known only from this location, and grows not more than 3 centimeters. It is the tiniest fish that I have ever seen* and were it not for the authors of the study, Ralf Britz, Anvar Ali and Rajeev Raghavan, probably it would have stayed in the wilderness and would not have received this attention. Readers should recall that the lead author of this study is the same one who described the “smallest vertebrate” Paedocypris progenetica, thus this fish is rather “big” for him.

This find calls our attention to some important points:

  1. It is the fourth valid Pangio species from the Indian region, the congeners of which are all distributed in the South – South Eastern Asian region.
  2. This species has a remarkably different colour pattern from the hitherto identified species of the genus, and most similar to its geographically nearest species Pangio goaensis.

These two points leads our attention to the historical bio-geography of the region. How was the present distribution of animals, in particular fishes of South – South Eastern Asia formed. The disjunct distribution of these species with its congeners in the North Eastern India and South East Asia (a huge geographical barrier), is surprising. These authors have found out Dario urops which was described recently, which also has a similar disjunct distribution. So these findings should help advance our understanding of the historical bio-geography of the region as well as the pangean and gondwanan connections of the Asian fauna.

3. Another issue that this species brings to fore is conservation of fragile habitats. This location is the only place where the species is found and is thus important (also it should harbour other species).

The unprecedented economic growth in India and especially in the region means that indiscriminate sand mining occurs in this same stream. Imagine how many of these sand loving eel-loaches would have been mined out before being noticed by the authors? How do we balance the biodiversity conservation and economic growth?

*Competing interest: I was part of the collection team which found this species and is a collaborator at the Conservation Research Group.

Ralf Britz, Anvar Ali and Rajeev Raghavan (2012). Pangio ammophila, a new species of eel-loach from Karnataka, southern India (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters,, 23 (1), 45-50