As the title suggest, a new species of teleost has been found out, it was collected, “sort of” unearthed, from the sand bed of a small river in south western India, thus named “ammophila” which means “sand loving”.
This species is for now known only from this location, and grows not more than 3 centimeters. It is the tiniest fish that I have ever seen* and were it not for the authors of the study, Ralf Britz, Anvar Ali and Rajeev Raghavan, probably it would have stayed in the wilderness and would not have received this attention. Readers should recall that the lead author of this study is the same one who described the “smallest vertebrate” Paedocypris progenetica, thus this fish is rather “big” for him.
This find calls our attention to some important points:
- It is the fourth valid Pangio species from the Indian region, the congeners of which are all distributed in the South – South Eastern Asian region.
- This species has a remarkably different colour pattern from the hitherto identified species of the genus, and most similar to its geographically nearest species Pangio goaensis.
These two points leads our attention to the historical bio-geography of the region. How was the present distribution of animals, in particular fishes of South – South Eastern Asia formed. The disjunct distribution of these species with its congeners in the North Eastern India and South East Asia (a huge geographical barrier), is surprising. These authors have found out Dario urops which was described recently, which also has a similar disjunct distribution. So these findings should help advance our understanding of the historical bio-geography of the region as well as the pangean and gondwanan connections of the Asian fauna.
3. Another issue that this species brings to fore is conservation of fragile habitats. This location is the only place where the species is found and is thus important (also it should harbour other species).
The unprecedented economic growth in India and especially in the region means that indiscriminate sand mining occurs in this same stream. Imagine how many of these sand loving eel-loaches would have been mined out before being noticed by the authors? How do we balance the biodiversity conservation and economic growth?
*Competing interest: I was part of the collection team which found this species and is a collaborator at the Conservation Research Group.
Ralf Britz, Anvar Ali and Rajeev Raghavan (2012). Pangio ammophila, a new species of eel-loach from Karnataka, southern India (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters,, 23 (1), 45-50